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Common symptoms of abiotic stresses

Common symptoms of abiotic stresses may include the following:

  • At the growing tips and shoots:
    • Wilting from insufficient soil water, or incipient wilting due to rate of transpiration greater than the rate at which roots absorb water
    • Defoliation and dieback due to chronic water deficit
  • At the leaves:
    • Wilting from insufficient soil water
    • "Burning" of leaf tips or margins, due to toxicity from salt and specific ions
    • Various chlorosis patterns — for example, overall yellowing or yellowing between veins with veins remaining green (interveinal chlorosis) — due to mineral deficiencies, salinity, or air pollutants
    • Malformed and necrotic leaves resulting from herbicide damage
    • Defoliation and dieback from various abiotic causes such as chronic drought stress, or toxicity related to salt or specific ions
  • On branches and trunks:
    • Splitting and cracking due to freezing temperatures, wind damage, or sunburn
    • Mechanical injuries from mowers, golf carts, and impacts from golf balls
  • At the roots:
    • Discolored, leading to death, due to poor soil aeration or toxic gases
    • Distortion, girdling, or kinking from soil compaction or mechanical injuries
  • For the entire plant: stunted growth and dieback
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